It is one of the oldest stringed instruments in the world, which dates back to 3000 BC. It was named Oud, which means wood, as the first instrument was made of such material. Moreover, it is the most recognizable instrument in both classic and modern Arabic music. For instance, the western mandolin and guitar are considered to come from the family of Oud. Moreover, it comes as a pear-shaped wooden box engraved with three decorative holes, and also attached with six double-strings, where, in the past, a feather or an eagle’s beak is used as a string pick.
2. Ney or Qasaba
It is a hollow, cylindrical flute with six or seven finger holes placed in a row. It is played by directing an airstream against the sharp edge of the upper end of the tube.
It is an end-blown flute having two double-parallel hollow cylinders, with five holes placed on each cylinder, which is either blocked or released according to the melody. The Mizmar is usually made of metal, wood, and bones of eagles.
4. Dan sound
A traditional genre of vocal music that is usually presented before the actual song begins. According to the rhythm of this vocal music, the poets fill the Dan rhythm with their poetry verses in an impromptu poetry competition during occasions in Hadramout. The Dan sound is characterized by its range, strength, and clarity of its sound.
5. Drum or Darabouka
A traditional instrument made of clay, brass, or metal, with only one side covered in either goatskin or plastic. In addition, Darabouka comes in different sizes depending on its role in the rhythmic unit of a song, such as a small Dum, big Dum, and trimmings Dum.
A Duff is a type of drum having a round wooden frame and a goatskin membrane, placed by sewing the skin using a braided thread through the small holes on the wood. In some cases, a Duff is attached with zills and small metal bells. Moreover, larger duff is locally known as Al ttar.
7. Hajer Drum
It is a cylindrical drum made of Teak and having two drumheads both covered by goatskin. In addition, the height and the circumference of the Hajer drum depend on the kind of music that it will play.
8. Mirwas Drum
Although it is the smallest hand drum in Hadramout, Mirwas produces the sharpest sound among other instruments. Moreover, in order to produce a sound, it is held in one hand while being hit by the other hand.
9. Marfaa’ or Maten Drum
It is very similar to the shape of Mirwas but differs only by the size and quality of sound produced. Specifically, Maten has a larger diameter than Mirwas and produces a less salient sound.
10. Tabla Drum or Banqaz
It is a foreign instrument that was introduced to the traditional Hadrami music in the early seventies. It contains two different sizes of wooden cylindrical drums, both attached with a plastic drumhead, having diameters of 8cm and 6cm, respectively.
It is composed of two pieces of flat wood held by each of the hand, clapped together to form a sound that is synchronized with the handclaps. In addition, the Maraqis works as a rhythmic attribute that gives a consistent and harmonic musical sound along with other instruments.